Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis DSM 21565T an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a Colombian saline spring


A bacterium belonging to the phylum Synergistetes, genus Dethiosulfovibrio was isolated in 2007 from a saline spring in Colombia. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82T (DSM 21565 T = KCTC 5659 T ) is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic, Gram negative bacterium with a diderm cell envelope. The strain ferments peptides, amino acids and a few organic acids. Here we present the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of the type species Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82T. The genome consisted of 2.68 Mbp with a 53.7% G + C. A total of 2609 genes were predicted and of those, 2543 were protein coding genes and 66 were RNA genes. We detected in USBA 82T genome six Synergistetes conserved signature indels (CSIs), specific for Jonquetella, Pyramidobacter and Dethiosulfovibrio. The genome of D. salsuginis contained, as expected, genes related to amino acid transport, amino acid metabolism and thiosulfate reduction. These genes represent the major gene groups of Synergistetes, related with their phenotypic traits, and interestingly, 11.8% of the genes in the genome belonged to the amino acid fermentation COG category. In addition, we identified in the genome some ammonification genes such as nitrate reductase genes. The presence of proline operon genes could be related to de novo synthesis of proline to protect the cell in response to high osmolarity. Our bioinformatics workflow included antiSMASH and BAGEL3 which allowed us to identify bacteriocins genes in the genome.


The bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes , a robust monophyletic branch of the phylogenetic tree based on rRNA data, are widespread in a wide range of anoxic ecosystems. Jumas-Bilak & Marchandin [1] have delineated several habitats in which the members of this phylum live. These include sludge and wastewater from anaerobic digesters [2,3,4], natural springs [5], natural seawater and sulfur mats [6], water related to petroleum and gas production facilities [7, 8] and host-associated microbiota [9,10,11].

A distinguishing feature which is common to all members of the phylum Synergistetes [12] is the capacity to use amino acids as sources of energy [13]. The ability to ferment carbohydrates is limited to a few cultured species [4]. Currently, the phylum groups 15 genera: Aminiphilus , Aminivibrio , Aminobacterium , Aminomonas , Cloacibacillus , Thermovirga , Fretibacterium , Jonquetella , Pyramidobacter , Synergistes , Thermanaerovibrio , Lactivibrio , Dethiosulfovibrio , Acetomicrobium and Rarimicrobium [4, 14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23]. They include 28 species of strictly anaerobic, neutrophilic, Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Dethiosulfovibrio comprises five described species: Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans [7], the type species of the genus; Dethiosulfovibrio acidaminovorans , Dethiosulfovibrio marinus , Dethiosulfovibrio russensis [6] and Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis [5] which were isolated from corroding offshore oil wells, ‘Thiodendron’ sulfur mats in various saline environments and a Colombian saline spring. Members of the genus Dethiosulfovibrio are vibrios or curved or vibrioid-like rods which are mesophilic, neutrophilic, slightly halophilic, chemoorganoheterotrophic, sulfur and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria. They share 98.5% of their 16S rRNA gene sequence positions with the type species of the genus, D. peptidovorans , and only 94.2% with the fifth characterized species of the genus, D. salsuginis [1].

Bhandari and Gupta [24] identified molecular markers consisting of conserved signature insertions/deletions (indels) (CSIs) present in protein sequences which are specific for Synergistetes . Of these, seven are specifically present in Jonquetella , Pyramidobacter and Dethiosulfovibrio . In this study, we verified whether these CSIs are also present in D. salsuginis USBA 82T.

Organism information

Classification and features

D. salsuginis USBA 82T was isolated in 2007 from the saline spring named Salpa, in the Colombian Andes. The spring has a temperature ~ 21 °C and pH ~ 6.5 throughout the year. The predominant dissolved ion is sulfate (20 g.l−1) and the conductivity is approximately 50 mS. cm−1 [25]. Samples were collected in sterile containers, which were capped, stored over ice, transported to the laboratory and maintained at 4 °C until use [5]. Enrichments were done as described in Díaz-Cárdenas et al. [5]. Briefly, they were initiated in a medium prepared by filtering saline spring water through polycarbonate membranes (Durapore) with a pore size of 0.22 μm. The medium was supplemented with peptone (0.2%, w/v), yeast extract (0.02%, w/v) and the trace element solution (1 ml l−1) as described by Imhoff-Stuckle & Pfenning [26]. Then, the medium was boiled and then cooled to room temperature under a stream of oxygen-free nitrogen. An 8 ml aliquot was dispensed into Hungate tubes under oxygen-free nitrogen gas and sterilized by autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min at a pressure of 1–1.5 kg cm−2. The enrichment medium was inoculated with 2 ml water samples, incubated at 36 °C for up to 2 weeks. To isolate pure cultures, serial dilutions of the enrichment cultures were made in an artificial basal medium (BM) fortified with 2% (w/v) Noble agar (pH = 7.1) using the roll-tube technique [5].

Cells of strain USBA 82T are slightly curved rods with pointed or rounded ends (5–7 × 1.5 μm) and occur singly or in pairs. Cells are motile by laterally inserted flagella (Fig. 1). This non-spore-forming, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic, Gram negative bacterium with a diderm cell envelope, presents some particular metabolic features. It ferments arginine, casamino acids, glutamate, histidine, peptone, serine, threonine, tryptone, pyruvate and citrate, but growth is not observed on carbohydrates, alcohols or fatty acids. The main end products of fermentation are acetate and succinate [5]. As other members of the genus, strain USBA 82T reduces thiosulfate and sulfur to sulfide but sulfate, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as electron acceptors [5]. The reduction of sulfur or thiosulfate is not required for growing on the amino acids arginine, glutamate and valine. The strain USBA 82T ferments these amino acids, in contrast to that observed on D. peptidovorans .

Fig. 1

Electron micrograph of negatively stained cells of strain USBA 82T. An ultra-thin section revealing the presence of a typical Gram-negative cell wall ultra-structure CW: cell wall; CM, cytoplasmic membrane (Bar = 500 nm)

The strain USBA 82T grows optimally at 30 °C (growth range 20–40 °C), pH 7.3 (pH growth range pH 5.5–8.5) and 2% (w/v) NaCl (growth range 0.1–7% NaCl) [5].

The isolate was assigned to the phylum Synergistetes , close to D. peptidovorans , by comparison of the 16S rRNA sequence with a similarity value of 94.2% [5, 7]. Comparison of the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological features of strain USBA 82T with all other members of Dethiosulfovibrio , suggested that it represents a novel species for which the name D. salsuginis was proposed [5].

D. salsuginis was stored since the collection date at the Collection of Microorganisms of Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (CMPUJ, WDCM857) (ID CMPUJ U82T =DSM 21565 T=KCTC 5659 T) with the ID USBA 82T growing anaerobically on the BM medium described by Díaz-Cárdenas et al. [5]. Cells are preserved at −20 °C in BM supplemented with 20% (v/v) glycerol [5]. The general features of the strain are reported in Table 1.

Table 1 Classification and general features of D. salsuginis according to MIGS standards [28]

Genome sequencing information

Genome project history

Jumas-Bilak & Marchandin [1] pointed out that bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes remain poorly characterized by molecular approaches, particularly by typing methods, and the only gene sequences currently available for most organisms of the phylum are 16S rDNA sequences. Currently, there are twenty-eight isolates that are fully sequenced and annotated or in the phase of final sequencing. The type strain USBA 82T was selected to sequencing on the basis of its novelty and this genome contributes with the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea [27]. In addition, this work is part of the bigger study aiming at exploring the microbial diversity in extreme environments in Colombia. More information can be found on the Genomes OnLine database under the study Gs0118134. The JGI accession number, sequence project ID is 1,094,809 and consists of 68 scaffolds. The annotated genome is publically available in IMG under Genome ID FXBB01000001-FXBB01000068. Table 2 depicts the project information and its association with MIGS version 2.0 compliance [28].

Table 2 Project information

Growth conditions and genomic DNA preparation (heading level 2)

D. salsuginis strain USBA 82T was grown anaerobically on 100 mL of BM supplemented with 1.0 g yeast extract and 0.5% (w/v) peptone [5] at 30 °C for 24 h. The growth was monitored by OD580nm. Cells were harvested by centrifugation at 4000 rpm when the mid exponential phase (OD580nm = 0.2) was reached, pelleted and immediately used for DNA extraction. We extracted the genomic DNA using the Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Genome sequencing and assembly

The draft genome of D. salsuginis was generated at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) using the Illumina technology [29]. An Illumina 300 bp insert standard shotgun library was constructed and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform which generated 12,750,038 reads totaling 1912.5 Mbp. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing performed at the JGI can be found at All raw Illumina sequence data was filtered using BBDuk [30], which removes known Illumina artifacts and PhiX. Reads with more than one “N” or with quality scores (before trimming) averaging less than 8 or reads shorter than 51 bp (after trimming) were discarded.

Remaining reads were mapped to masked versions of human, cat and dog references using BBMAP [30] and discarded if identity exceeded 93%. Sequence masking was performed with BBMask [30]. The following steps were then performed for assembly: (1) artifact filtered Illumina reads were assembled using Velvet (version) [31]; (2) 1–3 kbp simulated paired end reads were created from Velvet contigs using wgsim (version 0.3.0) [32]; (3) Illumina reads were assembled with simulated read pairs using Allpaths–LG (version r46652) [33]. Parameters for assembly steps were: (1) Velvet (velveth: and velvetg), (2) wgsim (−e 0–1100–2100 –r 0 –R 0 –X 0), (3) Allpaths–LG (PrepareAllpathsInputs: PHRED 64 = 0 PLOIDY = 1 FRAG COVERAGE = 125 JUMP COVERAGE = 25 LONG JUMP COV = 50 and RunAllpathsLG: THREADS = 8 RUN = std. shredpairs TARGETS = standard VAPI WARN ONLY = True OVERWRITE = True).

Genome annotation

Annotation was done using the DOE-JGI annotation pipeline [34]. Genes were identified using Prodigal [35]. The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGRFam, Pfam, KEGG, COG, KOG, MetaCyc (version 19.5) and Gene Ontology databases. The first category of non-coding RNAs, tRNAs, were predicted using tRNAscan-SE 1.3.1 tool [36] Ribosomal RNA genes (5S, 16S, 23S) were predicted using hmmsearch tool from the package HMMER 3.1b2 [37]. Other non–coding RNAs such as the RNA components of the protein secretion complex and the RNase P were identified by searching the genome for the corresponding Rfam profiles using INFERNAL [38]. Additional gene prediction analysis and manual functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes – Expert Review platform [39] developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA. The annotated genome of strain USBA 82T is available in IMG (genome ID = 2,671,180,116).

We used IMG tools for data mining to explore potential production of secondary metabolites of D. salsuginis genome. In addition, we developed a bioinformatics workflow which included platforms such as antiSMASH [40], BAGEL3 [41] and NaPDoS [42].

Genome properties

The genome of D. salsuginis is 2.68 Mbp with a 53.7% GC content. A total of 2609 genes were predicted and of those, 2543 were protein coding genes and 66 were RNA genes. The properties and statistics of the genome are summarized in Table 3. The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 4. Most genes were classified in the category of amino acid transport and metabolism (11.8%), followed by general function (8.3%) and inorganic ion transport and metabolism (6.6%).

Table 3 Genome statistics
Table 4 Number of genes associated with general COG functional categories

Insights from the genome sequence

The draft genome provides phylogenetic and metabolic information. Phylogenetic relationship was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequence and seven conserved signature indels identified as specific for a clade consisting of Jonquetella anthropi , Pyramidobacter piscolens and D. peptidovorans [24].

Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of strain USBA 82T and related strain types currently characterized in the phylum Synergistetes were aligned using MEGA 7 program version 7.0.25 [43]. The evolutionary distance was analyzed by Neighbour-Joining (NJ) [44], using Jukes-Cantor method [45] (Fig. 2) and Maximum-Likelihood (ML) using the General Time Reversible (GTR) model plus gamma distribution and invariant sites see Additional file 1: Figure S1) [46]. Bootstrap support was computed after 1000 reiterations for NJ and ML analysis. Thermodesulfatator indicus DSM 15286 T (GenBank accession number AF393376) was used as outgroup in all phylogenetic analyses. The topology of the trees confirmed that the strains belong to subdivision B of the phylum Synergistetes together with members of the genera Dethiosulfovibrio , Jonquetella , Pyramidobacter and Rarimicrobium .

Fig. 2

Relationships of D. salsuginis USBA 82T using 16S rRNA gene was inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1000 replicates) is shown next to the branches. The evolutionary distances were computed using the Jukes-Cantor method and are in the units of the number of base substitutions per site. The analysis involved 28 nucleotide sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There was a total of 1085 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7

We compared seven conserved signature indels that are present in the following protein sequences: penicillin binding protein, 1A family; ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (nrdA); putative DEAD/DEAH box helicase (indel position 398–457); putative DEAD/DEAH box helicase (indel position 437–496); DNA directed RNA polymerase, ß subunit (rpoB); 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsC) and tRNA modification GTPase TrmE (trmE). We used an identification pipeline with BlastP [43] searches of the reported CSIs over the genome of D. salsuginis USBA 82T and J. anthropi DSM 22815/1–750, P. piscolens W 5455/1738 and D. peptidovorans DSM 11002/1–743, and multiple alignments using Mafft [44]. The indels that we detected correspond in size to those previously reported by Bhandari and Gupta [24]. We found a 4 amino acids (aa) deletion in the penicillin binding protein, 1A family (see Additional file 2: Figure S2), a 1aa insertion in the nrdA gene (see Additional file 3: Figure S3), a 13aa insertion in the rpoB gene (see Additional file 4: Figure S4), a 1aa insertion in the plsC gene (see Additional file 5: Figure S5) and a 1aa insertion in the trmE gene (see Additional file 6: Figure S6). DEAD/DEAH box CSIs were neither detected in our genome, nor have they ever been detected in previously analyzed species (see Additional file 7: Figure S7).

We also evaluated ultrastructure characters including the cell-wall structure, which currently supports the separation of the Synergistetes clade from other members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae . We detected the presence of a particular deletion in the Hsp60 protein in USBA 82T (see Additional file 8: Figure S8). It differentiates the traditional Gram-negative diderm bacterial phyla from atypical taxa of diderm bacteria such as Negativicutes , ‘ Fusobacteria , ‘ Elusimicrobia and Synergistetes [47]. It has been reported that Synergistetes species contain an outer membrane and also have genes that are used for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in other microorganisms. However, they lack the genes for the TolAQR-Pal complex that are required for assembly and maintenance of typical outer membrane [48] suggesting that the nature and the role of the outer membrane in Synergistetes could be different than those of other bacteria. This observation was also confirmed in the D. salsuginis strain USBA 82T genome.

We used MAUVE [49] for whole genome alignment of D. salsuginis strain USBA 82T with D. peptidovorans type strain (SEBR 4207 T). The alignment showed conserved clusters and synteny of the majority of the genes (Fig. 3). However, there are some rearrangements dispersed in the genome of D. salsuginis . There is a clear inversion of two regions at the end of the genome and small translocations of regions. Those differences are consistent with the phylogenetic distance between the two species.

Fig. 3

Multiple Alignment performed using Mauve of D. salsuginis USBA-82T and D. peptidovorans DSM 11002T genomes. The type strain of D. peptidovorans (DSM 11002T) is shown at the botton and the strain USBA-82T (DSMZ 21565T) is shown in the top. Conserved blocks are represented with direct lines from D. peptidovorans to strain USBA-82T showing synteny of genes among the genome

Metabolic information contained in the genome of D. salsuginis includes genes related to amino acid transport and metabolism, thiosulfate reduction, and heat shock proteins (hsps). Ammonification genes, mainly nitrate reductase genes (narG,H,I,J), were also observed throughout the genome. In addition, the presence of proline operon proHJ and proA gene could be related to the response to high osmolarity through de novo synthesis of proline to protect the cell from stress [50].

The fermentation of amino acids observed in this species is more commonly found in the phylum Synergistetes , which have a high proportion of amino acid transport and metabolism genes (COG E), than in any other bacterial phylum to date [48]. D. salsuginis contained a total of 229 genes related to this COG category. This represents 11.8% of the genes of this genome.

In contrast, carbohydrate fermentation has only been exhibited by a few cultured species in the phylum Synergistetes , such as Thermanaerovibrio velox [51] and Acetomicrobium spp. [14, 52, 53]. These observations, based on cultured members of the phylum Synergistetes , suggest that members of this phylum are specialists with relatively shallow ecophysiological niches [3]. As was expected, only 5.5% of the genes in the genome of D. salsuginis were categorized as carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes.

IMG tools were used to identify nine biosynthetic gene clusters that are associated with secondary metabolites. With the exception of a cluster reported as a bacteriocin, clusters were identified as putative. antiSMASH 3.0.5 was used to detect 11 clusters of biosynthetic genes related to bacteriocins (18.2%), fatty acids (18.2%), lipopolysaccharide (9.1%) and putative biosynthetic clusters (11%). We found that one of the putative biosynthetic clusters is related to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. This cluster includes an EPS biosynthesis domain protein, a polysaccharide export protein, a sugar transferase, a nucleotide sugar dehydrogenase and a NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase. It has been reported that EPS of benthic bacteria is involved in motility [54], in absorbing nutrient elements [55] and in assisting attachment of bacteria to organic particles and other surfaces [56]. The presence of this biosynthetic cluster related to EPS production could be an adaptive advantage for growth of this strain in its natural habitat. Using BAGEL3, we identified two biosynthetic clusters. The bacteriocin Linocin M18-like structural protein (>10KDa) (BAGEL3 bacteriocin III database PF04454.7 [1.8e-80] - BlastP 3e-143) belongs to the peptidase U56 family (see Additional file 9: Figure S9a). It presents a similarity of 73% with the Linocin-M18 protein identified in D. peptidovorans . The other cluster was a sactipeptide (see Additional file 9: Figure S9b), but there were no significant BlastP hits for the putative structural gene product. We also identified a gene related to a transposase (BlastP 2e-33) in this cluster. This gene is frequently found in association with bacteriocins, but we also found a putative ABG transporter (PF03806.8 [5.8e-148] – BlastP 0.0) and genes predicted to encode a radical SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) which are involved in bacteriocin maturation (PF14319.1 [9.2e-05] - BlastP 3e-147).


The genome of D. salsuginis USBA 82T provides insights into many aspects of its physiology and evolution. Sequence analysis and comparative genomics corroborated the taxonomic affiliation of D. salsuginis into the Synergistetes phylum. We detected six of the seven conserved signature indels (CSIs) identified by Bhandari and Gupta [24] as useful for distinguishing the species of the phylum. Our results grouped Jonquetella , Pyramidobacter and Dethiosulfovibrio species together and confirmed the specificity of these CSIs in highly conserved regions of proteins as targets for evolutionary studies in Synergistetes .

The genome of D. salsuginis USBA 82T contains genes related to amino acid transport and metabolism, thiosulfate reduction and ammonification. This agrees with experimental data and physiological observations. The presence of proline operon genes demonstrates the possibility of a cellular response to high osmolarity through de novo synthesis of proline to protect the cell from stress. Using our bioinformatics workflow, we identified bacteriocin genes associated with secondary metabolites in the genome. Future research will address whether or not these clusters of biosynthetic genes express the associated secondary metabolites that we have identified.



Colección de Microorganismos de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana


Conserved signature indels


Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen


inferred from direct assay




Korean Collection for Type Culture


meters above sea level


Minimum information about a genome sequence


Non-traceable author statement


Traceable author statement


World Data Center for Microorganisms


  1. 1.

    Jumas-Bilak E, Marchandin H. Phylum Synergistetes. In: Rosenberg E, Delong EF, Lory S, Stackebrandt E, Thompson F, editors. Prokaryotes – other major lineages Bact. Archaea: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2014. p. 931–54.

  2. 2.

    Baena S, Fardeau ML, Labat M, Ollivier B, Garcia JL, Patel BKC. Aminobacterium mobile sp. nov., a new anaerobic amino-acid-degrading bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50:259–64.

  3. 3.

    Godon JJ, Morinière J, Moletta M, Gaillac M, Bru V, Delgènes JP. Rarity associated with specific ecological niches in the bacterial world: the “Synergistes” example. Environ Microbiol. 2005;7:213–24.

  4. 4.

    Qiu YL, Hanada S, Kamagata Y, Guo RB, Sekiguchi Y. Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. Nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mesophilic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid-degrading bacterium in the phylum Synergistetes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:2137–45.

  5. 5.

    Díaz-Cárdenas C, López G, Patel BKC, Baena S. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis sp. nov., an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline spring. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:850–3.

  6. 6.

    Surkov AV, Dubinina GA, Lysenko AM, Glöckner FO, Kuever J. Dethiosulfovibrio russensis sp. nov., Dethiosulfovibrio marinus sp. nov. and Dethiosulfovibrio acidaminovorans sp. nov., novel anaerobic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria isolated from “Thiodenron” sulfur mats in different saline environments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001;51:327–37.

  7. 7.

    Magot M, Ravot G, Campaignolle X, Ollivier B, Patel BK, Fardeau ML, et al. Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans gen. Nov., sp. nov., a new anaerobic, slightly halophilic, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium from corroding offshore oil wells. Int. J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:818–24.

  8. 8.

    Orphan VJ, Taylor LT, Hafenbradl D, Delong EF. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of microbial assemblages associated with high-temperature petroleum reservoirs. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:700–11.

  9. 9.

    Shinzato N, Muramatsu M, Matsui T, Watanabe Y. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the bacterial community in the gut of the termite Coptotermes Formosanus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1145–55. Available from:

  10. 10.

    Vartoukian SR, Palmer RM, Wade WG. Cultivation of a Synergistetes strain representing a previously uncultivated lineage. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:916–28.

  11. 11.

    Baumgartner A, Thurnheer T, Lüthi-Schaller H, Gmür R, Belibasakis GN. The phylum Synergistetes in gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:1600–9.

  12. 12.

    Jumas-Bilak E, Roudière L, Marchandin H. Despcription of “Synergistetes” phyl. Nov. and emended description of the phylum “Deferribacteres” and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum “Firmicutes”. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:1028–35.

  13. 13.

    Vartoukian SR, Palmer RM, Wade WG. The division “Synergistes”. Anaerobe. 2007;13:99–106.

  14. 14.

    Rees GN, Patel BK, Grassia GS, Sheehy AJ. Anaerobaculum thermoterrenum gen. Nov., sp. nov., a novel, thermophilic bacterium which ferments citrate. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997;47:150–4. Available from:

  15. 15.

    Baena S, Fardeau ML, Labat M, Ollivier B, Thomas P, Garcia JL, et al. Aminobacterium colombiensegen. Nov. sp. nov., an amino acid-degrading anaerobe isolated from anaerobic sludge. Anaerobe. 1998;4:241–50. Available from:

  16. 16.

    Baena S, Fardeau ML, Ollivier B, Labat M, Thomas P, Garcia JL, et al. Aminomonas paucivorans gen. Nov., sp. nov., a mesophilic, anaerobic, amino-acid-utilizing bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 3:975–82.

  17. 17.

    Baena S, Fardeau ML, Woo TH, Ollivier B, Labat M, Patel BK. Phylogenetic relationships of three amino-acid-utilizing anaerobes, Selenomonas acidaminovorans, “Selenomonas acidaminophila” and Eubacterium acidaminophilum, as inferred from partial 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences and proposal of Thermanaerovibrio acidami. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 3:969–74.

  18. 18.

    Dahle H, Birkeland NK. Thermovirga lienii gen. Nov., sp. nov., a novel moderately thermophilic, anaerobic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium isolated from a North Sea oil well. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:1539–45.

  19. 19.

    Díaz C, Baena S, Fardeau ML, Patel BKC. Aminiphilus circumscriptus gen. Nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic amino-acid-degrading bacterium from an upflow anaerobic sludge reactor. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57:1914–8.

  20. 20.

    Jumas-Bilak E, Carlier JP, Jean-Pierre H, Citron D, Bernard K, Damay A, et al. Jonquetella anthropi gen. Nov., sp. nov., the first member of the candidate phylum “Synergistetes” isolated from man. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57:2743–8.

  21. 21.

    Ganesan A, Chaussonnerie S, Tarrade A, Dauga C, Bouchez T, Pelletier E, et al. Cloacibacillus evryensis gen. Nov., sp. nov., a novel asaccharolytic, mesophilic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium within the phylum “Synergistetes”, isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:2003–12.

  22. 22.

    Jumas-Bilak E, Bouvet P, Allen-Vercoe E, Aujoulat F, Lawson PA, Jean-Pierre H, et al. Rarimicrobium hominis gen. Nov., sp. nov., representing the fifth genus in the phylum Synergistetes that includes human clinical isolates. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:3965–70.

  23. 23.

    Honda T, Fujita T, Tonouchi A. Aminivibrio pyruvatiphilus gen. Nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, amino-acid-degrading bacterium from soil of a Japanese rice field. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013;63:3679–86.

  24. 24.

    Bhandari V, Gupta RS. Molecular signatures for the phylum Synergistetes and some of its subclades. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2012;102:517–40.

  25. 25.

    Alfaro C. Geoquímica del Sistema Geotérmico de Paipa. Bogotá: Documento interno ministerio de Minas y Energía – INGEOMINAS; 2002.

  26. 26.

    Imhoff-Stuckle D, Pfennig N. Isolation and characterization of a nicotinic acid-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfococcus niacini sp. nov. Arch Microbiol. 1983;136:194–8.

  27. 27.

    Kyrpides NC, Hugenholtz P, Eisen JA, Woyke T, Göker M, Parker CT, et al. Genomic encyclopedia of bacteria and Archaea: sequencing a myriad of type strains. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001920.

  28. 28.

    Field D, Garrity G, Gray T, Morrison N, Selengut J, Sterk P, et al. The minimum information about a genome sequence (MIGS) specification. Nat Biotechnol. 2008;26:541–7.

  29. 29.

    Bennett S. Solexa Ltd. Pharmacogenomics. 2004;5:433–8. Available from:

  30. 30.

    B. Bushnell: BBTools software package, URL

  31. 31.

    Zerbino DR, Birney E. Velvet: algorithms for de novo short read assembly using de Bruijn graphs. Genome Res. 2008;18:821–9.

  32. 32.

    Wgsim, URL

  33. 33.

    Gnerre S, MacCallum I, Przybylski D, Ribeiro FJ, Burton JN, Walker BJ, et al. High-quality draft assemblies of mammalian genomes from massively parallel sequence data. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2011;108:1513–8. Available from:

  34. 34.

    Huntemann M, Ivanova NN, Mavromatis K, Tripp HJ, Paez-Espino D, Palaniappan K, et al. The standard operating procedure of the DOE-JGI microbial genome annotation pipeline (MGAP v.4). Stand Genomic Sci. 2015;10:86. Available from:

  35. 35.

    Hyatt D, Chen G-L, Locascio PF, Land ML, Larimer FW, Hauser LJ. Prodigal: prokaryotic gene recognition and translation initiation site identification. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:119. Available from:

  36. 36.

    Lowe TM, Eddy SR. tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transferRNA genes in genomic sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:955–64.

  37. 37.

    Eddy SR. Accelerated profile HMM searches. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002195.

  38. 38.

    Nawrocki EP, Eddy SR. Infernal 1.1: 100-fold faster RNA homology searches. Bioinformatics. 2013;29:2933–5.

  39. 39.

    Markowitz VM, Mavrommatis K, Ivanova NN, Kyrpides NC. IMG ER: a system for microbial genome annotation expert review and Curation. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2271–8.

  40. 40.

    Weber T, Blin K, Duddela S, Krug D, Kim HU, Bruccoleri R, et al. antiSMASH 3.0--a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:1–7. Available from:

  41. 41.

    van Heel AJ, de Jong A, Montalbán-López M, Kok J, Kuipers OP. BAGEL3: automated identification of genes encoding bacteriocins and (non-)bactericidal posttranslationally modified peptides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:W448–53.

  42. 42.

    Ziemert N, Podell S, Penn K, Badger JH, Allen E, Jensen PR. The natural product domain seeker NaPDoS: a phylogeny based bioinformatic tool to classify secondary metabolite gene diversity. PLoS One. 2012;7:e34064.

  43. 43.

    Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol. 2016:msw054. Available from:

  44. 44.

    Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method- a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees..Pdf. Mol Biol Evol. 1987;4:406–25.

  45. 45.

    Jukes TH, Cantor CR. Evolution of protin molecules. In: Munro HN, editor. Mamm. protein Metab. III. Berkeley: New York Academic Press; 1969. p. 21–132.

  46. 46.

    Nei M, Kumar S. Molecular evolution and phylogenetics: Oxford University; 2000.

  47. 47.

    Gupta RS. Origin of diderm (gram-negative) bacteria: antibiotic selection pressure rather than endosymbiosis likely led to the evolution of bacterial cells with two membranes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011;100:171–82.

  48. 48.

    Hugenholtz P, Hooper SD, Kyrpides NC. Focus: Synergistetes: genomics update. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:1327–9.

  49. 49.

    Darling AE, Mau B, Perna NT. Progressivemauve: multiple genome alignment with gene gain, loss and rearrangement. PLoS One. 2010;5:e11147.

  50. 50.

    Brill J, Hoffmann T, Bleisteiner M, Bremer E. Osmotically controlled synthesis of the compatible solute proline is critical for cellular defense of Bacillus subtilis against high osmolarity. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5335–46.

  51. 51.

    Zavarzina DG, Zhilina TN, Tourova TP, Kuznetsov BB, Kostrikina NA, Bonch-Osmolovskaya EA. Thermanaerovibrio velox sp. nov., a new anaerobic, thermophilic, organotrophic bacterium that reduces elemental sulfur, and emended description of the genus Thermanaerovibrio. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50:1287–95.

  52. 52.

    Menes RJ, Muxí L. Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium that uses crotonate as an electron acceptor, and amended description of the genus Anaerobaculum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002;52:157–64.

  53. 53.

    Bouanane-Darenfed A, Hania W, Ben FM-L, Ollivier B, Cayol J-L. Reclassification of Anaerobaculum mobile, Anaerobaculum thermoterrenum, Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans as Acetomicrobium mobile comb. nov., Acetomicrobium thermoterrenum comb. nov. and Acetomicrobium hydrogeniformans comb. nov., respectively, and emendati. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2016;66:1506–9. Available from:

  54. 54.

    Liu A, Mi ZH, Zheng XY, Yu Y, Su HN, Chen XL, et al. Exopolysaccharides play a role in the swarming of the benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1–9.

  55. 55.

    Mancuso Nichols CA, Guezennec J, Bowman JP. Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine environments with special consideration of the Southern Ocean, sea ice, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a review. Mar Biotechnol. 2005;7:253–71.

  56. 56.

    Holmström C, Kjelleberg S. Marine Pseudoalteromonas species are associated with higher organisms and produce biologically active extracellular agents. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 1999;30:285–93.

  57. 57.

    Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML. Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4576–9.

  58. 58.

    Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. Nat Genet. 2000;25:25–9.

Download references


This research was funded by Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Universidad de los Andes, and Colciencias (Project 120365843394). The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Author information




CDC carried out the isolation of the strain USBA-82T, physiological studies and analysis of the draft genome. GL participated in the genomic DNA preparation and analysis of the draft genome. NS, TW and NCK participated in the Genome sequencing, assembly and annotation. JDA and LNG participated in Genome annotation and data mining for secondary metabolites. SR and SB conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sandra Baena.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Additional files

Additional file 1: Figure S1.

Phylogenetic relationships of D. salsuginis USBA 82T based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the General Time Reversible model. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Joining and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) approach, and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. A discrete Gamma distribution was used to model evolutionary rate differences among sites (5 categories (+G, parameter = 0.6072)). The rate variation model allowed for some sites to be evolutionarily invariable ([+I], 46.4848% sites). The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 26 nucleotide sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There was a total of 1090 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA 7. (DOCX 72 kb)

Additional file 2: Figure S2.

Multiple alignment of Penicillin binding protein, 1A family. Multiple alignment contained a 4 aa deletion which is specific for Dethiosulfovibrio, Jonquetella and Pyramidobacter clade. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 34 kb)

Additional file 3: Figure S3.

Multiple alignment of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase protein. The multiple alignment contained a 1 aa insertion which is specific for Dethiosulfovibrio, Jonquetella and Pyramidobacter clade. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 34 kb)

Additional file 4: Figure S4.

Multiple alignment of a conserved region of the DNA directed RNA polymerase, ß subunit (RpoB) protein. The multiple alignment contained a 13 aa insertion that is specific for Dethiosulfovibrio, Jonquetella and Pyramidobacter clade. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 34 kb)

Additional file 5: Figure S5.

Multiple alignment of a conserved region of the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase protein. The multiple alignment contained a 1 aa insertion that is specific for Dethiosulfovibrio, Jonquetella and Pyramidobacter clade. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 36 kb)

Additional file 6: Figure S6.

Multiple alignment of a conserved region of the e tRNA modification GTPase TrmE protein. The multiple alignment contained a 1 aa insertion that is specific for Dethiosulfovibrio, Jonquetella and Pyramidobacter clade. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 34 kb)

Additional file 7: Figure S7.

Multiple alignment of the Putative DEAD/DEAH box helicase proteins. CSIs previously reported in this protein were not found. The analysis was done using Mafft. (DOCX 46 kb)

Additional file 8: Figure S8.

Partial sequence alignment of the Hsp60 protein. The sequence alignment is showing the absence of 1 aa (red) in a conserved region that is mainly specific for atypical diderm taxa (Negativicutes, ‘Fusobacteria’, Synergistetes and ‘Elusimicrobia’) from all of the phyla of traditional Gram-negative bacteria that contain this insert. Only representative sequences from different bacterial phyla are shown here. Accession numbers of the non-redundant protein database are: Escherichia coli WP_077064857.1, Nostoc commune BAF95909.1, Helicobacter pylori WP_020981906.1, Lentisphaera araneosa WP_007279303.1, Rickettsia prowazekii WP_004596265.1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa WP_050442419.1, Ralstonia solanacearum WP_013213354.1, Bacillus subtilis WP_087960787.1, Aminomonas paucivorans WP_006301345.1, Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis WP_085544335.1. (DOCX 26 kb)

Additional file 9: Figure S9.

Diagrammatic representation of A) the Linocin-M18 like gene clusters and B) Sactipeptides like gene clusters. (DOCX 64 kb)

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Díaz-Cárdenas, C., López, G., Alzate-Ocampo, J. et al. Draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis DSM 21565T an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a Colombian saline spring. Stand in Genomic Sci 12, 86 (2017).

Download citation


  • Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis
  • Synergistetes
  • Halophilic
  • Anaerobe
  • Fermentation of amino acids
  • Saline spring