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Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Senegalemassilia anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov.

Abstract

Senegalemassilia anaerobia strain JC110T sp.nov. is the type strain of Senegalemassilia anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov., the type species of a new genus within the Coriobacteriaceae family, Senegalemassilia gen. nov. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. S. anaerobia is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccobacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,383,131 bp long genome contains 1,932 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes.

Introduction

Senegalemassilia anaerobia strain JC110T (= CSUR P147 = DSMZ 25959) is the type strain of S. anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov. This bacterium was isolated from the feces of a healthy Senegalese patient. It is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, indole-negative coccobacillus. Classically, the polyphasic taxonomy is used to classify the prokaryotes by associating phenotypic and genotypic characteristics [1]. Culturomics is a new subfield of genomics aimed at studying the microbial repertoire of the gut, and has already lead to the isolation of many new bacterial species [2]. In parallel, as more than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced so far, we proposed to integrate genomic data in descriptions of new bacterial species [315].

The family Coriobacteriaceae was created in 1997, in the class Actinobacteria, and currently contains 13 genera of anaerobic Gram-positive members of the normal intestinal microbiota from humans and animals [1628]. Among them, Gordonibacter and Paraeggherthella have occasionally been isolated from Crohn’s disease specimens [26].

Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for S. anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov. strain JC110T together with the description of the complete genomic sequencing and annotation. These characteristics support the circumscription of the genus Senegalemassilia and the species S. anaerobia.

Classification and features

A stool sample was collected from a healthy 16-year-old male Senegalese volunteer patient living in Dielmo (rural village in the Guinean-Sudanian zone in Senegal), who was included in a research protocol. Written assent was obtained from this individual. No written consent was needed from his guardians for this study because he was older than 15 years old (in accordance with the previous project approved by the Ministry of Health of Senegal, the assembled village population, and as published elsewhere [28]. Both this study and the assent procedure were approved by the National Ethics Committee of Senegal (CNERS) and the Ethics Committee of the Institut Fédératif de Recherche IFR48, Faculty of Medicine, Marseille, France (agreement numbers 09-022 and 11-017). Several other new bacterial species were isolated from this specimen using various culture conditions, including the recently described Anaerococcus senegalensis, Alistipes senegalensis, Alistipes timonensis, Peptoniphilus timonensis, Clostridium senegalense, Paenibacillus senegalensis and Bacillus timonensis, Herbaspirillum massiliense, Kurthia massiliensis, Brevibacterium senegalense, Aeromicrobium massiliense and Cellulomonas massiliensis[315].

The fecal specimen was preserved at −80°C after collection and sent to Marseille. Strain JC110T (Table 1) was isolated in February 2011. The stool was preincubated for 5 days in a blood culture bottle, and then inoculated onto 5% sheep blood agar and incubated in anaerobic atmosphere at 37°C. The strain exhibited a nucleotide sequence similarity with members of the Coriobacteriaceae ranging from 85.3% with Atopobium parvulum to 92.4% with Enterorhabdus mucosicola (Figure 1). This value was lower than the 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence threshold recommended by Stackebrandt and Ebers to delineate a new genus [33]. By comparison to the NR database, strain JC110 T also exhibited nucleotide sequence similarities greater than 99% with uncultured bacterial clones detected in metagenomic studies of the human gut flora. These bacteria are most likely classified within the same species as strain JC110 (Figure 1).

Figure 1.
figure1

Phylogenetic tree highlighting the phylogenetic position of Senegalemassilia anaerobia strain JC110T relative to other type strains within the Coriobacteriaceae family. GenBank accession numbers are indicated in parentheses. Sequences were aligned using CLUSTALW, and phylogenetic inferences were made using the maximum-likelihood method within the MEGA software. Numbers at the nodes are percentages of bootstrap values (500 repetitions) to generate a majority consensus tree. The scale bar indicates a 1% nucleotide sequence divergence. The red square groups sequences that exhibit degrees of similarity > 99% with S. anaerobia (same species), whereas that in the dashed-line square is 97.2% similar (same genus).

Table 1. Classification and general features of Senegalemassilia anaerobia strain JC110T according to the MIGS recommendations [29]

Different growth temperatures (25, 30, 37, 45°C) were tested; no growth occurred at 25°C or 45°C, weak growth occurred at 30°C, optimal growth was observed at 37°C. Colonies were transparent and smooth with 0.5 mm in diameter on blood-enriched Columbia agar and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar. Growth of the strain was tested under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions using GENbag anaer and GENbag microaer systems, respectively (BioMérieux), and in the presence of air, of 5% CO2 and in aerobic conditions. Growth only occurred under anaerobic conditions. A motility test was positive. Cells grown on agar appear as Gram-positive coccobacilli (Figure 2) and have a diameter ranging from 0.62 to 0.76 µm (mean of 0.70 µm) and a length ranging from 1.36 to 1.73 µm (mean of 1.56 µm)(Figure 3).

Figure 2.
figure2

Gram staining of S. anaerobia strain JC110T

Figure 3.
figure3

Transmission electron microscopy of S. anaerobia strain JC110T, using a Morgani 268D (Philips) at an operating voltage of 60kV.The scale bar represents 900 nm. Length and diameter were measured about 10 different bacteria.

Strain 110T exhibited neither catalase nor oxidase activities. In the API Rapid ID 32A system, positive reactions were obtained for arginine dihydrolase, and nitrate reduction. A weak reaction was obtained for alkanine phosphatase. In the API ZYM system, positive reaction was observed for Naphthlol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a weak reaction was observed for alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase. Negative reactions were observed for alkaline phosphatase, esterase, esterase lipase, lipase, leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase. In the API 50CH system, all reactions were negative. S. anaerobia is susceptible to amoxicillin, imipenem, metronidazole and gentamicin but resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

The comparisons with genera of the Coriobacteriaceae family are summarized in Table 2. Senegalemassilia anaerobia JC110T shares motility with Gordonibacter pamelae, in contrast with Adlercreutzia equolifaciens, Enterorhabdus mucosicola, Eggerthela sinensis and Collinsella aerofaciens. In contrast with Collinsella aerofaciens, Senegalemassilia anaerobia was asaccharolytic. Among these species, JC110T revealed a positive reaction for nitrate reductase. Lastly, we observed within the members of Coriobacteriaceae family a large heterogeneity of DNA G+C content ranging from 60% to 66.5% [Table 2].

Table 2. Differential characteristics of six members of the Coriobacteriaceae family

Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS protein analysis was carried out as previously described using a Microflex spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) [34]. Briefly, a pipette tip was used to pick one isolated bacterial colony from an agar plate, and to spread it as a thin film on an MTP 384 MALDI-TOF target plate (Bruker Daltonics, Leipzig, Germany). Twelve distinct deposits were done for strain JC110T from twelve isolated colonies. Each smear was overlaid with 2 µL of matrix solution (saturated solution of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) in 50% acetonitrile, 2.5% tri-fluoracetic-acid, and allowed to dry for five minutes. Measurements were performed with a Microflex spectrometer (Bruker). Spectra were recorded in the positive linear mode for the mass range of 2,000 to 20,000 Da (parameter settings: ion source 1 (IS1), 20 kV; IS2, 18.5 kV; lens, 7 kV). A spectrum was obtained after 675 shots at a variable laser power. The time of acquisition was between 30 seconds and 1 minute per spot. The twelve JC110T spectra were imported into the MALDI BioTyper software (version 2.0, Bruker) and analyzed by standard pattern matching (with default parameter settings) against the main spectra of 3,769 bacteria, which were used as reference data, in the BioTyper database. The method of identification included the m/z from 3,000 to 15,000 Da. For every spectrum, a maximum of 100 peaks taken into account and compared with spectra in the database. A score enabled the identification, of the tested species: a score > 2 with a validly published species enabled the identification at the species level, a score > 1.7 but < 2 enabled the identification at the genus level; and a score < 1.7 did not enable any identification. For strain JC110T, no significant score was obtained, suggesting that JC110T was not a member of a known species or genus. We incremented our database with the spectrum from strain JC110T (Figure 4). The gel view allowed us to highlight the spectra differences with other of Coriobactericeae family members (Figure 5).

Figure 4.
figure4

Reference mass spectrum from S. anaerobia strain JC110T. Spectra from 12 individual colonies were compared and a reference spectrum was generated.

Figure 5.
figure5

Gel view comparing Senegalemassilia anaerobia JC110T spectra with other members into Coriobacteriaceae family (Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Atopobium parvulum, Collinsella aerofaciens, Eggerthella lenta, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Gordonibacter pamelaeae). The Gel View displays the raw spectra of all loaded spectrum files arranged in a pseudo-gel like look. The x-axis records the m/z value. The left y-axis displays the running spectrum number originating from subsequent spectra loading. The peak intensity is expressed by a Gray scale scheme code. The color bar and the right y-axis indicate the relation between the color a peak is displayed with and the peak intensity in arbitrary units.

Genome sequencing information

Genome project history

The organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position and 16S rRNA similarity to other members of the Coriobacteriaceae, and is part of a “culturomics” study of the human digestive flora aiming at isolating all bacterial species in human feces. It was the sixth genome of a species within the Coriobacteriaceae and the first genome of Senegalemassilia anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov. A summary of the project information is shown in Table 3. The EMBL accession number is CAEM00000000 and consists 8 scaffolds. Table 3 shows the project information and its association with MIGS version 2.0 compliance.

Table 3. Project information

Growth conditions and DNA isolation

Senegalemassilia anaerobia strain JC110T (= CSUR P147 = DSMZ 25959) was grown on 5% sheep blood-enriched Columbia agar (BioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France) at 37°C in an anaerobic atmosphere. Four petri dishes were spread and resuspended in 3 × 100µl of G2 buffer (EZ1 DNA Tissue kit, Qiagen). A first mechanical lysis was performed using glass powder on a Fastprep-24 device (MP Biomedicals, Ilkirch, France) during 2×20 seconds. DNA was then treated with 2.5 µg/µL lysozyme (30 minutes at 37°C) and extracted through the BioRobot EZ 1 Advanced XL (Qiagen). The DNA was then concentrated and purified on a Qiamp kit (Qiagen). The yield and the concentration was measured by the Quant-it Picogreen kit (Invitrogen) on the Genios_Tecan fluorometer at 25 ng/µl.

Genome sequencing and assembly

Sequencing was performed using the 3kb paired-end strategy on a Roche 454 Titanium pyrosequencer. This project was loaded twice onto a 1/8 region of a PTP Picotiterplate (Roche, Meylan, France). DNA (5µg) was mechanically fragmented on a Hydroshear device (Digilab, Holliston, MA, USA) with an enrichment size at 3–4 kb. DNA fragmentation was visualized using the Agilent 2100 BioAnalyzer on a DNA labchip 7500 with an optimal size of 3,215 kb. The library was constructed according to the 454 Titanium paired-end protocol. Circularization and nebulization were performed and generated a pattern with an optimum at 363 bp. After PCR amplification through 15 cycles, followed by double size selection, the single stranded paired-end library was quantified using a Quant-it Ribogreen kit (Invitrogen) on the Genios Tecan fluorometer at 152 pg/µL. The library concentration equivalence was calculated to be 7.68E+08 molecules/µL. The library was stored at −20°C until further use.

The library was clonally amplified with 1 cpb in 3 SV-emPCR reactions with the GS Titanium SV emPCR Kit (Lib-L) v2 (Roche). The yield of the emPCR was 12.87%, in the 5 to 20% range from the Roche procedure. Approximately 340,000 beads were loaded onto each of the two 1/8 regions of GS Titanium PicoTiterPlates. Sequencing was performed using the GS Titanium Sequencing Kit XLR70. The runs were performed overnight and then analyzed on the cluster through the gsRunBrowser and Newbler assembler (Roche). A total of 256,934 passed filter wells were obtained and generated 74 Mb of DNA sequence with an average length of 289 bp. The passed filter sequences were assembled using Newbler with 90% identity and 40 bp as overlap. The final assembly yielded 8 scaffolds and 62 large contigs (>1,500 bp).

Genome annotation

Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were predicted using Prodigal [35] with default parameters. The predicted bacterial protein sequences were searched against the Genbank database and the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases using BLASTP. The tRNAScanSE tool [36] was used to find tRNA genes, whereas ribosomal RNAs were found by using RNAmmer [37] and BLASTn against GenBank. ORFans were identified if their BLASTp E-value was lower than 1e-03 for alignment length greater than 80 amino acids. If alignment lengths were smaller than 80 amino acids, we used an E-value of 1e-05. To estimate the mean level of nucleotide sequence similarity at the genome level between S. anaerobia and other members of the Coriobacteriaceae and among members of this family, we compared genomes two by two and determined the mean percentage of nucleotide sequence identity among orthologous ORFs using BLASTn Orthologous genes were detected using the Proteinortho software [38].

Genomes properties

The genome is 2,383,131 bp long (one chromosome, no plasmid) with a 60.9% G + C content (Table 4). Of the 1,990 predicted genes, 1,932 were protein-coding genes, and 58 were RNAs (1 rRNA operon and 55 tRNA genes). A total of 1,430 genes (68.12%) were assigned a putative function. Fifty-six genes were identified as ORFans (2,90%). The remaining genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins (330 genes = 17.08%). The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 5 and Figure 6. The properties and the statistics of the genome are summarized in Tables 4 and 5.

Figure 6.
figure6

Graphical circular map of the genome from outside to the center: Contigs (red/grey), COG category of genes on the forward strand (three circles), genes on the forward (blue circle) and reverse strands (red circle), COG category on the reverse strand (three circles), GC content.1

Table 4. Nucleotide content and gene count levels of the genome
Table 5. Number of genes associated with the 25 general COG functional categories

Comparison with genomes from Coriobacteriaceae

At present, the complete genomes from Atopobium parvulum [39], Cryptobacterium curtum [40], Eggerthella lenta [41], Olsenella uli [42], and Slackia heliotrinireducens [43] are available. S. anaerobia has a smaller genome than E. lenta and S. heliotrinireducens (2,384,013 bp vs 3, 632,260 bp and 3,165,038 bp, respectively) but larger than A. parvulum, C. curtum, and O. uli (2,384,013 bp vs 1,543,805 bp, 1,617,804 bp, and 2,051,896 bp, respectively). It has a greater number of genes than A. parvulum, C. curtum and O. uli (1,900 vs 1,419, 1,425 and 1,850 genes, respectively) but fewer than E. lenta and S. helionitrireducens (3,181 and 2,858 genes, respectively), and has a higher G+C content than A. parvulum, C. curtum and S. heliotrinireducens (60.9% vs 45.69% and 50.91%, 60.21%, respectively) but smaller than E. lenta and O. uli (64.2% and 64.7%, respectively). Table 6 summarizes the numbers of orthologous genes and the average percentage of nucleotide sequence identity between the different genomes studied. The average nucleotide identity ranged from 47.74 to 71.10% within the Coriobacteriaceae family, and from 47.74% to 67.05% between S. anaerobia and other species.

Table 6. Number of orthologous genes (upper right) and average nucleotide identity levels (lower left) between pairs of genomes determined using the Proteinortho software [38].

Conclusion

On the basis of phenotypic (Table 2), phylogenetic and genomic analyses (Table 6), we formally propose the creation of Senegalemassilia anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov. that contains strain JC110T. This bacterium has been found in Senegal.

Description of Senegalemassilia gen. nov.

Senegalemassilia (se.ne.ga.le.ma.si’li.a N.L. fem. N. Senegalemassilia, combination of Senegal, where the stool was collected and massilia, the latin name of Marseille, where strain JC110T was cultivated.)

Gram-positive coccobacilli. Strictly anaerobic. Mesophilic. Motile. Absent catalase, oxydase and indole productions. Positive for arginine dihydrolase, nitrate reduction and alkanine phosphatase. Habitat: human digestive tract. Type species: Senegalemassilia anaerobia.

Description of Senegalemassilia anaerobia sp. nov.

Senegalemassilia anaerobia (an.a.e.ro’bi.a. N. L. F. adj. Gr. pref. an not; Gr. N. aer air; Gr.n.bios life; N.L. adj. anaerobia anaerobe, that can live in the absence of oxygen; referring to the respiratory metabolism of organism). It has been isolated from the feces of an asymptomatic Senegalese patient.

Gram-positive coccobacilli, 0.7 µm in diameter and 1.56µm in length. Strictly anaerobic. Mesophilic. Motile and non-sporulating. Colonies are transparent and smooth with 0.5 mm in diameter on blood-enriched Columbia agar. Catalase oxydase and indole negative. Arginine dihydrolase, nitrate reduction, alkanine phosphatase, acid phosphatase and Naphtlol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase positive. Asaccharolytic. Cells are susceptible to amoxicillin, imipenem, metronidazole and gentamicin but resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The 16S rRNA and genome sequences are deposited in Genbank and EMBL under accession numbers JF824809 and CAEM00000000, respectively. The G+C content of the genome is 60.9%. Habitat: human digestive tract. The type strain JC110T (= CSUR P147 = DSMZ 25959) was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy patient in Senegal.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mr Julien Paganini at Xegen company for automating the genome annotation process and Mr Ajay Mishra for his help in the determination of average genomic nucleotide sequence identities. This work was funded by the Mediterranee-Infection foundation.

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Correspondence to Pierre-Edouard Fournier.

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Lagier, JC., Elkarkouri, K., Rivet, R. et al. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Senegalemassilia anaerobia gen. nov., sp. nov.. Stand in Genomic Sci 7, 343–356 (2013). https://doi.org/10.4056/sigs.3246665

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Keywords

  • Senegalemassilia anaerobia
  • genome