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Table 2 Summarises metagenomic investigations of camel species including the host species, sequencing technology used, notable prokaryotic taxa detected and postulated roles in the microbiome for the listed taxa. Unless otherwise indicated Dromedary camels were sampled from hot environments, Bactrian from cold; for a indicated studies where no clear location is given for location animals were sampled from

From: A rather dry subject; investigating the study of arid-associated microbial communities

Sequencing method

No. sampled organisms

Host organism

Prokaryotic taxa of interest

Potential role of prokaryote(s) in microbiome


16S rRNA



Prevotella ruminicola

Produce glycoside hydrolyse enzymes

Synergise with fibrolytic bacteria to improve fibre digestion

Gharechahi J. et. al. 2015 [195]

Ruminococcus flavefaciens

High efficiency in degrading crystalline and amorphous cellulose

Fibrobacter succinogenes

Prolific cellulose degrader

16S rRNA



Blautia species

May provide anti-inflammatory effects in young camels

He J. et. al. 2019 [199]

Christensenellaceae members

May help regulate intestinal environment

Linked to immunomodulation and healthy homeostasis

16S rRNA



Unclassified Ruminococcaceae

May contribute to further feed fermentation to cope with low quality forage

He J. et. al. 2018 [197]

Unclassified Clostridiales

Akkermansia species

May help prevent diabetes even with high blood glucose levels

May help prevent hypertension even with diet high in salt

Whole genome shotgun



Fibrobacter succinogenes

Potential lignocellulose degrader

Gharechahi J. et. al. 2018 [198]

Member of Ruminococcus

Degrading crystalline cellulose

Members of Fibrobacteres

Help deal with diet rich in lignocellulose

Members of Spirochaetes

Members of Bacteroidetes

Utilise PUL enzymes to assimilate complex dietary carbohydrates

Whole genome shotgun



Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

Production of starch degrading enzymes

Bhatt V.D. et. al. 2013 [200]

16S rRNA



Members of Ruminococcaceae

Help digest highly lignified winter forage diet

Salgado-Flores A [201].