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Table 7. Typical features of reference taxa.

From: Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1T), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

  Spirochaeta coccoides [1] Genus Sphaerochaeta [4] Genus Spirochaeta [30]
Cell shape coccoid, spherical, not spiral coccoid, spherical, pleomorphic; not helical or spiral helical or spiral; spherical bodies under unfavorable growth conditions
Cell size 0.5–2.0 µm 0.4–2.5 µm 0.2–0.75 by 5–250 µm
Motility non-motile non-motile motile
Flagellation no flagella no flagella 2 periplasmic flagella (exception: S. plicatilis, with many flagella)
T-optimum 30 °C mesophilic 25–68 °C
pH-optimum 7.4 neutrophilic  
Oxygen requirement anaerobe anaerobe obligately anaerobe or facultatively anaerobe
Fermentation products acetate, ethanol, formate acetate, ethanol, formate acetate, ethanol, CO2, H2
G+C content 56.6–57.4 mol% [1] 51 mol%, this study 45–48 mol% 51–65 mol% [30] 44–65 mol% [29]
  1. On the basis of the above mentioned physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of strain SPN1T, its reclassification into the genus Sphaerochaeta is proposed. The inclusion of Sphaerochaeta in Spirochaetaceae also makes an emendation of the family necessary, as its previous description excludes features specifically found in Sphaerochaeta.