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Table 4 Detection of Vibrio spp. in nontraditional irrigation water samples using culture-based methods versus 16S rRNA sequencing with and without BrdU labeling

From: Coupled DNA-labeling and sequencing approach enables the detection of viable-but-non-culturable Vibrio spp. in irrigation water sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

Sampling sites/ detection methods APW EPW No enrichment
Culture 16S-BrdU 16S-
No BrdU
Culture 16S-BrdU 16S-
No BrdU
16S-BrdU 16S-
No BrdU
V. aesturianus
Reclaimed water (n = 48) Absent 0.002 0.003 Absent 0 0.001 0.001 0.0003
Tidal brackish water (n = 48) Absent 0.1 1.3 Absent 0 0.3 0.02 0
Nontidal freshwater (n = 36) Absent 0 0 Absent 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007 0.003
Pond water (n = 48) Absent 0 0 Absent 0.013 0 0 0
V. cholerae
Reclaimed water (n = 48) Present 0.004 0.4 Present 0.005 0.014 0.002 0.003
Tidal brackish water (n = 48) Present 0.5 1.9 Present 0.04 1 0.009 0.009
Nontidal freshwater (n = 36) Absent 0.004 0.004 Present 0.003 0.003 0.005 0.003
Pond water (n = 48) Absent 0.004 0.002 Absent 0.006 0.005 0.002 0.003
V. parahaemolyticus
Reclaimed water (n = 48) Present 0.01 0.01 Present 0.03 0.013 0.004 0.004
Tidal brackish water (n = 48) Present 0.24 0.4 Present 0.37 0.06 0.007 0.002
Nontidal freshwater (n = 36) Absent 0.021 0.007 Absent 0.024 0.013 0.002 0.008
Pond water (n = 48) Absent 0.03 0.0001 Absent 0.07 0.01 0.004 0.008
V. shilonii
Reclaimed water (n = 48) Absent 0 0.01 Absent 0 0 0 0
Tidal brackish water (n = 48) Absent 0.02 0.06 Absent 0 0.0025 0.001 0
Nontidal freshwater (n = 36) Absent 0.0004 0 Absent 0.0004 0.0006 0 0
Pond water (n = 48) Absent 0 0 Absent 0 0 0 0
V. vulnificus
Reclaimed water (n = 48) Present 0.007 0.07 Absent 0.01 0.004 0.009 0.002
Tidal brackish water (n = 48) Absent 0.9 2.84 Absent 0.05 0.32 0.14 0.02
Nontidal freshwater (n = 36) Absent 0.005 0.002 Absent 0.02 0.006 0.002 0.009
Pond water (n = 48) Absent 0.015 0.006 Absent 0.03 0.01 0.007 0.013